CITES IN SPAIN
The aim of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora —better known as the CITES Convention— is to foster conservation of threatened species of wild animals and plants by controlling trade therein.
- The Conference of the Parties (CoP) is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. All CITES Member Countries (Party States or Parties) meet at an ordinary meeting of the Conference of the Parties at least every 2 or 3 years; the CoP may also call an extraordinary meeting at the request of at least one-third of the Parties.
- The CITES Secretariat, which is administered by United Nations, is located in Geneva (Switzerland), and is funded by contributions from the Parties. The Secretariat acts as a liaison in the exchange of information between the different States, and other authorities and organizations.
The ultimate aim of the CITES Convention is to help ensure that international trade in wild plants and animals is legal, sustainable, and traceable. The system of permits and certificates that is in place ensures that all CITES goods are correctly documented, and full information is available regarding the source, destination, and reason for trade.
- Designation of one or more Management Authorities.
- Designation of one or more Scientific Authorities.
- Establishment of authorized entry points in each country that is Party to CITES.
- Appendix I: includes animal and plant species at greater risk of extinction. Trade in specimens of these species that are captured or harvested in their natural habitats is prohibited, and is only permitted in exceptional circumstances, e.g., for scientific research, in which case, trade may be authorized by means of an export permit (or re-export certificate) and an import permit.
- Appendix II: includes species that are not currently at risk of extinction, but which could become endangered unless trade is strictly controlled. Appendix II also includes look-alike species in order to ensure better control of similar protected species that are listed in the CITES Appendices. Trade in animals and plants that are captured or harvested in the wild, born in captivity, or artificially propagated, is permitted provided that certain requirements are met. Any such trade requires an export permit, or re-export certificate.
- Appendix III: includes species that are subject to regulation within the territory of a country that is a Party to CITES and requires the cooperation of other countries to prevent or restrict the use of such species. A CITES export permit is required when a specimen originates from a country that has requested the inclusion of the species concerned in Appendix III, or otherwise, a certificate of origin issued by the CITES Management Authority in the exporting or re-exporting country.
- Bonn Amendment:
- Gaborone Amendment:
- In keeping with the common trade policy adopted by the Member States, the EU has exclusive competence for the regulation of Foreign Trade.
- The EU Customs Union means that there are no systematic border controls between Member States, thus allowing the free movement of goods among the Member States.
- The EU has a common environmental policy, and likewise, community regulations on the protection and conservation of autochthonous species in the EU.
The CITES Convention is currently implemented in the EU, and consequently, in Spain, by means of Council Regulation (EC) 338/97, dated 9th December 1996, on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein, and by means of a further detailed Regulation, i.e., Commission Regulation (EC) 865/2006, which lays down detailed rules concerning implementation of the aforementioned Regulation (EC) 338/97. For further information, see the Legislation section on this website.
Although EU Regulations for CITES implementation are applied directly in the Member States, certain provisions have to be transposed into national laws when Member States have retained sovereignty over the matters referred to therein, e.g., sanctions.
Regulation (EC) 338/97 lists species in four Annexes, according to the level of protection granted, in decreasing order of protection: A, B, C, and D. The Annexes listing the different protected species are updated approximately every one to two years, and are published in an EU Regulation. For further information, consult the Legislation section.
- Annex A: includes all species listed in Appendix I of the CITES Convention, some species from CITES Appendix II, some species from CITES Appendix III, and some non-CITES species (mainly autochthonous species from one or more EU Member States).
- Annex B: includes all CITES Appendix II species, some CITES Appendix III species, and some non-CITES species.
- Annex C: includes all other CITES Appendix III species not listed in Annexes A and B, with the exception of certain Appendix III species for which the EU has entered a reservation.
- Annex D: has no equivalent in the Appendices to the Convention. It includes species that might be eligible for listing in one of the other Annexes, and for which EU import levels should therefore be monitored. The majority of species included in this Annex are non-CITES, or Appendix III species for which EU Member States hold a reservation.
EU regulations apply stricter import conditions for species listed in Annexes A and B than the applicable conditions under Appendices I and II of the Convention; accordingly, when trade of the species from the population concerned is considered to be sustainable, import permits are required and issued. There are also requirements to be met regarding housing and transport of live specimens, and further restrictions are applicable to internal trade in Annex A species.
- Species protected by the CITES Convention.
- Species not included in the CITES Convention, but which are threatened with extinction.
- Look-alike species that are listed to facilitate monitoring of species threatened with extinction.
- Species that are accorded a higher level of protection under the EU Habitats and Wild Birds Directives.
- Species whose introduction is known to represent a threat to certain native species of plants and animals in the EU.
Management authority:Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica y el Reto DemográficoDirección General de Biodiversidad, Bosques y DesertificaciónSubdirección General de Biodiversidad Terrestre y MarinaPlaza San Juan de la Cruz S/N, 28071 MadridTeléfono: +34 915976056Correo electrónico: firstname.lastname@example.org
Scientific authority:Ministerio de Ciencia e InnovaciónMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales de MadridC/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 MadridTeléfono: +34 914111328Correo electrónico: email@example.com